In this study, preterm infants were randomly allocated to receive preterm formula or banked human milk, alone or as supplements to the mother's own milk. In group A infants were randomly allocated banked donor milk or preterm formula as their sole diet or (separately randomised) as a supplement to their mother's expressed breast milk. In group B infants were allocated term or preterm formula. A blind follow up examination was done 18 months after the expected date of birth.

The use of human milk was associated with a significantly-reduced incidence of allergic disease, particularly eczema at 18 months in those with a family history of atopic disease. In those without a family history there was no effect.

Lucas A et al. (1990). Early diet of preterm infants and development of allergic or atopic disease: Randomised prospective study. BMJ 300: 837-840.