Mother–Child Interaction as a Cradle of Theory of Mind: The Role of Maternal Emotional Availability
This longitudinal study investigated the relative importance of emotional availability at 7 months, as a predictor of child's Theory of Mind at 4 years.
Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil
This prospective, population-based birth cohort study found that durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income.
Estimating the effects of breastfeeding on long-term child health and wellbeing in the United States using sibling comparisons
This US study looked at associations between breastfeeding and long term health and behavioural outcomes. Data was analysed from a full data set of 11,504 children aged 4 to 14, and a smaller sub-set of 1,773 sibling pairs where one infant had been breastfed and the other formula fed.
Breastfeeding and early white matter development in the brain
This study compared the amount of white matter, which facilitates the rapid and synchronised brain messaging required for higher-order cognitive functions, in the brains of 133 healthy children from 10 months to 4 years of age.
Impact of breastfeeding on intergenerational social mobility
This large UK study explored the influence of breastfeeding on social mobility by comparing the jobs fathers had in 1958 and 1970 with the jobs their children grew up to have.
Iron-Fortified vs Low-Iron Infant Formula: Developmental Outcome at 10 Years
This study looked to assess long-term developmental outcomes in children who received iron-fortified or low-iron formula.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development
A population-based birth cohort study in Spain was carried out to assess how the nutritional advantages of breastmilk may explain the relationship between breastfeeding and neurodevelopment.
Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of epilepsy?
An observational study of 69,750 infants born in Denmark has concluded that breastfeeding may decrease epilepsy in childhood.
Breastfeeding associated with higher test scores at age 9
A total of 8,226 9 year-old children were studied in Ireland as part of the 'Growing up in Ireland' study. Information relating to breastfeeding initiation and exposure duration was obtained retrospectively via parental recall.
Breastfeeding duration and academic achievement at 10 years
This study was examined the relationship between duration of breastfeeding and educational outcomes by examining 1,038 children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.
Donations to UNICEF UK do not fund the Baby Friendly Initiative, the expenses of the Baby Friendly Initiative are covered by the costs of training and assessment. No element of profit for UNICEF or the baby friendly initiative is included in these costs. © 2010 UNICEF UK.