These studies look at the links between breastfeeding and mental well-being in mothers.
Impact of postpartum depression on infant feeding outcomes
This systematic review examining the relationship between postpartum anxiety (PPA) and infant feeding outcomes found that women with symptoms of PPA were less likely to breastfeed exclusively and more likely to terminate breastfeeding earlier. Some evidence also suggests that those experiencing PPA are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to supplement with formula in the hospital. In those who do breastfeed, PPA reduces self-efficacy, increases breastfeeding difficulties, and may negatively affect breastfeeding behaviors and breast milk composition. Researchers called for increased breastfeeding support for mothers affected by PPA.
Impact of Baby Friendly accreditation on breastfeeding rates, cognitive outcomes and maternal mental health
Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, these researchers found that women giving birth in hospitals that participated in the Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI) were up to 15 percentage points more likely to initiate breastfeeding and between 8 and 9 percentage points more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 4 and 8 weeks than comparable mothers giving birth in non-participating hospitals. Mothers from low income families, and with low levels of education, were more responsive to the BFI programme than highly educated mothers in more affluent families.
They then compared the outcomes of children who were breastfed as a result of the BFI program with those of otherwise similar non-breastfed children. They found significant effects of breastfeeding on cognitive outcomes throughout childhood, and in particular between ages 3 and 7. In contrast to the previous literature, researchers found no statistically significant impact of breastfeeding on a number of health outcomes, but saw an improvement in child emotional development and maternal mental health.
Breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression
This study found that, among women with breastfeeding difficulties, those who did not report a negative breastfeeding support experience were at a decreased risk of postpartum depression. A negative breastfeeding support experience was found to have a significant effect on the relationship between breastfeeding difficulties and postpartum depression.
They concluded that the quality of breastfeeding support is important not only for breastfeeding promotion but also for maternal mental health. Educating front-line caregivers to ensure that breastfeeding women have positive experiences of support can reduce the risk of postpartum depression.
Chaput, K, et al (2016) Breastfeeding difficulties and supports and risk of postpartum depression in a cohort of women who have given birth in Calgary: a prospective cohort study. CMAJ Open, 10.9778/cmajo.20150009
Understanding the relationship between breastfeeding and postnatal depression: the role of pain and physical difficulties
This study found that short breastfeeding duration and stopping breastfeeding for physical difficulty and pain were associated with higher depression score.
The authors conclude that understanding women’s specific reasons for stopping breastfeeding is critical in understanding women’s breastfeeding experience and providing emotional support. They also stress the importance of early breastfeeding support.
Brown, A., Rance, J. & Bennett, P. (2015). Understanding the relationship between breastfeeding and postnatal depression: the role of pain and physical difficulties. Journal of Advanced Nursing, DOI: 10.1111/jan.12832